Go语言接口


Go编程提供了另一种称为接口(interfaces)的数据类型,它代表一组方法签名。struct数据类型实现这些接口以具有接口的方法签名的方法定义。

语法

/* define an interface */
type interface_name interface {
   method_name1 [return_type]
   method_name2 [return_type]
   method_name3 [return_type]
   ...
   method_namen [return_type]
}

/* define a struct */
type struct_name struct {
   /* variables */
}

/* implement interface methods*/
func (struct_name_variable struct_name) method_name1() [return_type] {
   /* method implementation */
}
...
func (struct_name_variable struct_name) method_namen() [return_type] {
   /* method implementation */
}

示例

package main

import (
   "fmt"
   "math"
)

/* define an interface */
type Shape interface {
   area() float64
}

/* define a circle */
type Circle struct {
   x,y,radius float64
}

/* define a rectangle */
type Rectangle struct {
   width, height float64
}

/* define a method for circle (implementation of Shape.area())*/
func(circle Circle) area() float64 {
   return math.Pi * circle.radius * circle.radius
}

/* define a method for rectangle (implementation of Shape.area())*/
func(rect Rectangle) area() float64 {
   return rect.width * rect.height
}

/* define a method for shape */
func getArea(shape Shape) float64 {
   return shape.area()
}

func main() {
   circle := Circle{x:0,y:0,radius:5}
   rectangle := Rectangle {width:10, height:5}

   fmt.Printf("Circle area: %f\n",getArea(circle))
   fmt.Printf("Rectangle area: %f\n",getArea(rectangle))
}

当上述代码编译和执行时,它产生以下结果:

Circle area: 78.539816
Rectangle area: 50.000000

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